Exchange of Messages
The first construct in the conceptual framework represents the fundamental exchange among school, family, and environment. It visually represents the introduction to awareness and the significant importance of how each influence and/or cause changes when it encounters other variables throughout preparatory development. The literature describes self-efficacy as a belief in one’s own ability. In the closer examination of self-efficacy among girls, Grossman and Porsche (2013) concluded that surrounding social systems (i.e., family, teachers, peers, and school) communicate messages that shape science engagement.